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This service provides final online versions of articles before they are compiled and published in an issue. PDF versions of manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication, but not yet copy-edited or typeset, allowing the most rapid access to accepted papers. All articles that are published ahead of print through Advance Online Publication  have not got the complete volume/issue/page information, yet they can be cited by using date of posting, authors and title of the article, name of the journal, the quotation Advance online publication, and the DOI of the paper. Upon release of the article’s scheduled issue, the advance article will move from this section to the issue’s full Table of Contents in its final edited form.

Using Facebook Ads for blindness prevention among people living with diabetes in the United States: A descriptive study

Authors: Sangeetha RAVI, Jessica LC SAPP, Jennifer L SEDILLO

box-doi    10.19204/2021/sngf3

Introduction: Early detection and treatment can prevent or delay blindness due to diabetic retinopathy in 90% of people with diabetes. However, 50% or more of them do not get their eyes examined or diagnosed too late for effective treatment. An online health campaign was administered to promote regular eye exams.
Methods: The Blindsighted (BS) health campaign administered from May 2019 to August 2019 included Facebook advertisements, Facebook posts, and an online blog article. The Facebook advertisements included learn more ads, like page ads, and a web-based survey ad. These ads were delivered to three target audiences: 1) at least 18 years old, located in the U.S., 2) at least 18 years old, located in the U.S., with special interests related to diabetes, and 3) 18-55 years of age, located in the U.S. A web-based survey was used to ask Facebook users’ opinions about the BS Survey ad.
Results: The total number of people reached through all 7 Facebook ads was 64,636. There were 88,425 impressions and 1,793 clicks. All ads cost US $ 923.91. The best performing ad campaign was BS Learn More with the BS 2-Diabetes being the best performing ad. When reviewing the correlation of reach and clicks for all ads, there was a strong positive correlation  (r =.90, P =.006) with a slightly more positive correlation when looking at just general audience ads (r = 0.95, P = .047). However, there was no significant correlation when analyzing all ads for the amount spent and results (r = .65, P =.112), amount spent and cost per result (r = .49, P = .262), or amount spent and reach (r =.59, P = .167). There were 11 Facebook posts published which reached 1302 users.
Conclusion: The Blindsighted health campaign highlights that Facebook is favorable to share health information.

Barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening in the United States: A narrative review of the qualitative literature

Authors: Amir R. REIHANI , Jalil AHARI, Edward P. MANNING , Hilary C. CAIN, Brett C. BADE , Heather G. ZIMMERMAN

box-doi    10.19204/2021/brrr4

Introduction: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men and women in the United States. We sought to identify factors associated with Lung Cancer Screening (LCS) participation.
Methods: To identify barriers and facilitators to lung cancer screening, we reviewed the literature for qualitative research studies evaluating lung cancer screening conducted in the United States. Articles were analyzed using a grounded approach (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding). Findings are discussed using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM), a theoretical model of health behaviors. Themes were identified and organized by their relevance to the SEM: individual patient, individual provider, interpersonal, cultural, and organizational levels.
Results: Themes facilitating participation include: prioritizing patient education, quality of communication, quality of provider-initiated encounter/coordination of care (individual patient and provider levels), quality of the patient-provider relationship (interpersonal level); perception of a life’s value and purpose (cultural level); and, quality of tools and care coordination (organizational level). Themes coded as barriers include: knowledge/capacity, behavior/attitude, comorbidities, and perception (individual patient level); education, pitfalls, process, and policies (provider level); patient-provider relationship, patient education, and quality communication (interpersonal level); distrust in the system, fatalistic beliefs, perception of aging (cultural level); and, access to resources, care coordination, and implementing lung cancer screening (LCS; organizational level).
Conclusion: Few qualitative research studies are available evaluating barriers and facilitators to LCS participation in the US. Major facilitators of lung cancer screening include patient education, high-quality communication, perception of life’s value, and decision-making tools. Major barriers to lung cancer screening include knowledge, patient-provider rapport, distrust in the system, and access to resources.  More qualitative studies are required to determine if these identified barriers and facilitators are transferrable to all LCS eligible population.

The mediating effects of satisfaction and attitude on consumers’ intent toward adoption of social media healthcare information

Authors: Philomina P. OFORI, Ethel Asante ANTWI, Kofi Asamoah OWUSU-ANSAH

box-doi    10.19204/2021/thmd5

Introduction: Social media’s (SM) popularity among consumers has grown over the years. Yet, consumers’ perceptions and actions toward accepting health information from social media platforms are not clear. Consumers’ acceptance of social media healthcare information in Ghana was investigated using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. This study integrated the UTAUT model with satisfaction and attitude.
Method: An online survey was conducted by employing a convenience sampling method. An online link containing the questionnaire was sent to participants through social media platforms, and out of the data received, 200 responses were used for this study. The data obtained was analyzed using SmartPLS Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) version 3.0.
Results: Behavior intention (BI) to use social media for healthcare information was significantly predicted by performance expectancy (PE), social influence (SI), and attitude (ATT) with (P < 0.005). ATT mediated the relationship between PE and BI as well as PE and SAT, which explains 83.6% of the variance in consumers’ intention to accept social media healthcare information.  ATT had a significant influence on consumers’ use behavior (UB) with satisfaction as the mediator, which explains 68.8% variance in the use behavior of consumers. Likewise, the explaining power of ATT and SAT were 40.1% and 66.6%, respectively. Consumers’ intention to utilize social media for healthcare purposes was influenced by PE, SI, and ATT, while SAT, and ATT had a significant impact on UB among Ghanaian consumers.
Conclusion: Therefore, the outcome offers health providers and professionals in developing countries the avenue to learn about consumers’ perceptions and reactions before introducing social media healthcare broadcasts. 

Sexual harassment by clients experienced by male and female clerks in retail businesses: A qualitative explorative study in an Italian sample

Authors: Daniela ACQUADRO-MARAN, Antonella VARETTO

box-doi    10.19204/2021/sxlh6

Introduction: The aim of this work was to analyse, from a qualitative point of view, the terms used by a sample of male and female clerks to describe their experience of sexual harassment victimization by clients.
Methods: We conducted a qualitative explorative study. Semi-structured interviews were administered to clerks who self-declared victims of sexual harassment in workplace by clients. Fifteen men (aged 30-59 years, M = 38.2 years) and 15 women (aged 24-50 years, M = 37.8 years) were interviewed. They worked in supermarkets (n = 18), clothing stores (n = 4), shoe stores (n = 3), bookstores (n = 1), e-cigarette stores (n = 1), jewellery stores (n = 1), coffee pod stores (n = 1), tobacco stores (n = 1) and mobile accessories stores (n = 1). The text from interviews was analyzed using Alceste 6.0.
Results: As expected, men were more likely than women to describe the insults concerning the sexual sphere as an experience of sexual harassment. At the same time, the experience of victimization described by women are related to terms about approaches to have a sexual relationship.
Discussion and Conclusions: Findings from this investigation could be useful to implement educational measures tailored to clerks. In Italy, education and training on workplace health and safety are mandatory and comprises psychosocial risks. Therefore, preventive measures should be tailored to address workplace violence acted by clients on workers, including coping strategies (e.g., assertive communication and reporting to work management and/or police).

Need for psychological support and disability management programs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: Preliminary findings from a hospital-based occupational health surveillance program

Authors: Reparata Rosa DI PRINZIO, Giorgia BONDANINI, Federica DE FALCO, Maria Rosaria VINCI, Vincenzo CAMISA, Annapaola SANTORO, Nicola MUCCI, Guendalina DALMASSO, Gabriele GIORGI, Nicola MAGNAVITA, Salvatore ZAFFINA

box-doi    10.19204/2021/ndfr7

Introduction: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) have undoubtedly experienced overwhelming levels of strain associated with social and occupational stressors. This study aimed to investigate the potential psychological effects experienced by hospital workers and HCWs and their associated demographical and occupational characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a public hospital in Rome, Italy, from June 2020 to July 2021. 635 hospital workers (HCWs, administrative and technicians) were enrolled in the study. The “Psychological Injury Risk Indicator” questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses have been made using Student’s T test for categorical binomial variables and analysis of variance for multi-categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was then performed.
Results: 30.6% of the sample was at risk for general psychological impairment; reduced energy recovery was found in 48.0% and sleep problems in 44.7% of them. Female workers reported a two-fold risk for potential psychological impairment compared to male colleagues. Nurses presented a three-fold risk while physicians a two-fold risk for the overall score. Additionally, physicians had a four-fold risk to develop a lack of energy recovery and a three-fold risk for chronic fatigue. Technicians showed a significant double risk for sleep problems and chronic fatigue as well as a three-fold risk for reduced energy recovery. Administrative personnel reported a tendency on sleep problems. Interestingly, agile working was a two-fold protecting factor. No-night shifters have a half risk for reporting problems in energy recovery.
Discussion and Conclusion: The measure of agile working is effective to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health by protecting and promoting the psychological wellbeing of HCWs during and after the outbreak.